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含铁物质对石材的影响!
来源:http://www.shengyashicai.com 日期:2019-12-06 发布人:晟亚小编
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  石材是岩石经加工后所产生的制品,岩石是由矿物组成的,其中含铁矿物是石材中铁质的来源。铁元素在自然界中分布甚广,但大多以化合物的方式出现,由于铁元素属中等活泼性的金属,在高温下易和氧、硫、氯等元素发生强烈反应,并易溶于无机稀酸和浓盐酸的溶液中,同时浓碱溶液也易侵蚀铁。  因此铁只有以化合物(含铁矿物)的形态出现,才得以在自然界中保存下来。铁的化合物有氧化物、硫化物、硅酸铁、碳酸铁、硼酸铁、钨酸铁、硫酸铁等数百种,但以下列四种化合物为主要类别:
  Stone is the product of rock after processing. Rock is composed of minerals, among which iron minerals are the source of iron in stone. Iron is widely distributed in nature, but mostly occurs in the form of compounds. Because iron is a moderately active metal, it is easy to react strongly with oxygen, sulfur, chlorine and other elements at high temperature, and it is easy to dissolve in the solution of inorganic dilute acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Meanwhile, concentrated alkali solution is also easy to erode iron. Therefore, only when iron appears in the form of compound (iron-bearing mineral), can it be preserved in nature. There are hundreds of iron compounds, such as oxides, sulfides, silicates, carbonates, borates, tungstates and sulfates, but the following four compounds are the main categories:
  一、氧化铁:含铁氧化物的矿物有磁铁矿、赤铁矿、褐铁矿、钛铁矿等。
  1. Iron oxide: minerals containing iron oxide include magnetite, hematite, limonite, ilmenite, etc.
  二、硫化铁:含铁硫化物的矿物有黄铁矿、白铁矿、黄铜砂、黄锡矿等。
  2. Iron sulfide: minerals containing iron sulfide include pyrite, white iron ore, brass sand, tin pyrite, etc.
  三、含铁硅酸盐矿物:有橄榄石、黑榴石、十字石、黑柱石、普通辉石等。
  III. iron bearing silicate minerals: olivine, garnet, cristobalite, andalusite, augite, etc.
  四、含铁碳酸盐矿物:有菱铁矿及铁白云石等。
  IV. iron bearing carbonate minerals: siderite, iron dolomite, etc.
  由于石材本身含有赤铁矿或硫铁矿等上述的含铁矿物,此类铁矿物本身极易氧化而锈蚀,造成石材表面变色、变黄以及锈斑等缺陷,严重者甚至因铁质锈蚀后膨胀而产生结晶颗粒爆裂与孔洞。就含铁矿物对各石材的影响逐项说明:
  Because the stone itself contains hematite or pyrite and other iron bearing minerals, such iron ore itself is very easy to oxidize and rust, resulting in discoloration, yellowing, rust spots and other defects on the stone surface, and even the crystal particles burst and holes due to the expansion of iron corrosion. The influence of iron bearing minerals on stone materials is explained one by one:
  一、含铁矿物对花岗石石材的影响除了含铁硫酸盐矿物外,大部分的含铁矿物都有可能存在花岗石中,属硅酸铁矿物的数量及分布更广,其次是氧化铁或硫化铁矿物。一般含铁矿物的颜色深暗,对花岗石的装饰美观价值有关键性的影响。花岗石中暗色矿物集中者,石材常呈黑色、绿色系,如摩卡绿(含FeO+Fe2O3:6.43%)、印度黑(含FeO+Fe2O3:13.2%)、南非深黑(含FeO+Fe2O3:20.5%),辛巴威黑(含FeO+Fe2O3:11.5%)等。黄铁矿、白铁矿等含铁矿物嵌入辉长岩中,因而形成了闪烁金光的黑金石材,印度黑金砂即为更显著的例子。含铁矿物在石材中的排列组合,丰富并美化了石材的装饰美观效果,使天然石材色彩变化绚丽,如孔雀绿(含FeO+Fe2O3:6.21%)、森林绿(含FeO+Fe2O3:5.31%)、豹皮花(含FeO+Fe2O3:3.40%)等。
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  1. The influence of iron-bearing minerals on granite stone except for iron sulfate minerals, most of the iron-bearing minerals may exist in granite, and the amount and distribution of iron silicate minerals are the most extensive, followed by iron oxide or iron sulfide minerals. Generally, the color of iron minerals is dark, which has a key impact on the decorative value of granite. The dark minerals are concentrated in granite, and the stone is usually black and green, such as Mocha green (containing FeO + Fe2O3: 6.43%), Indian black (containing FeO + Fe2O3: 13.2%), South Africa dark black (containing FeO + Fe2O3: 20.5%), Zimbabwe black (containing FeO + Fe2O3: 11.5%). Pyrite, white iron ore and other iron bearing minerals are embedded in gabbro, thus forming shiny black gold stone. The Indian black gold sand is the most significant example. The arrangement and combination of iron-bearing minerals in stone enriches and beautifies the decorative and artistic effect of stone, making the natural stone colorful, such as peacock green (including FeO + Fe2O3: 6.21%), forest green (including FeO + Fe2O3: 5.31%), leopard skin flower (including FeO + Fe2O3: 3.40%), etc.
  二、硫化铁是花岗石遭受锈黄污染的主要原因之一,它在常温常压下易风化水解,生成氧化铁,再进一步水化成褐铁矿。硫化铁分解后,有时会留下立方体黄铁矿假象,有的溶蚀成许多孔洞。若氧化铁溶液沿着裂隙渗透浸染,从而形成铁质薄膜,使石材遭受污染,形成色差,降低石材装饰效果。花岗石中遭受破坏的第二主要原因为黑云母,片状组织极容易沿此面剥离且易风化,风化层脱落后在石材表面形成小坑。另外,黑云母常遭水溶液作用而产生释放Fe3+作用,而锈染其他矿物,产生严重锈斑。含铁镏石即绿泥石类矿物是花岗石遭受破坏的第三主因,它们风化后易形成土状物,经风吹水冲后,造成石材表面产生孔洞和凹坑。
  2. Iron sulfide is one of the main reasons for the rust yellow pollution of granite. It is easy to be weathered and hydrolyzed under normal temperature and pressure to form iron oxide and then further hydrated to limonite. After the decomposition of iron sulfide, sometimes it will leave the illusion of cubic pyrite, and some will dissolve into many holes. If the iron oxide solution infiltrates along the cracks, the iron film will be formed, the stone will be polluted, the color difference will be formed, and the stone decoration effect will be reduced. The second main reason for the destruction of granite is biotite. The lamellar structure is easily peeled off along this surface and easily weathered. After the weathering layer falls off, small pits are formed on the stone surface. In addition, biotite is often affected by aqueous solution to release Fe3 +, while rust and dye other minerals to produce serious rust spots. The third main cause of granite damage is the iron containing slabstone, which is chlorite. It is easy to form earth like substance after weathering. After being washed by wind and water, holes and pits are formed on the stone surface.
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